Vorschau und Informationen zur UN-Biodiversitätskonferenz

Die UN-Biodiversitätskonferenz zielt darauf ab, neue Ziele für 2030 zu setzen, da die aktuellen Aichi-Ziele auslaufen. Sie findet vom 11. bis zum 15. Oktober 2021 online und vom 25. April bis zum 8. Mai 2022 vor Ort in Kunming (China) statt.

Auf dem Programm stehen unter anderem die 15. Vertragsstaatenkonferenz (Fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, COP15), die 10. Vertragsparteienkonferenz zum Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (Tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety), die 4. Vertragsparteienkonferenz zum Nagoya Protocol (Fourth meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization).

Die Vorbereitung der Verhandlungen ist noch im Gange. Beteiligt an der Arbeitsgruppe sind neben den Vertragspartnern der Biodiversitätskonvention NGOs, indigene Völker, Unternehmen und Forscher*innen (globaler Rahmen für die biologische Vielfalt für den Zeitraum nach 2020, engl: Post-2020 global diversity framework).

Ein erster Entwurf steht hier zur Einsicht.

Zur Umsetzung der Ziele wird darin die nachhaltige Finanzierung als Instrument benannt:

  • „3. Tools and solutions for implementation and mainstreaming:
    Target 14. Fully integrate biodiversity values into policies, regulations, planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies, accounts, and assessments of environmental impacts at all levels of government and across all sectors of the economy, ensuring that all activities and financial flows are aligned with biodiversity values.

    Target 15. All businesses (public and private, large, medium and small) assess and report on their dependencies and impacts on biodiversity, from local to global, and progressively reduce negative impacts, by at least half and increase positive impacts, reducing biodiversity-related risks to businesses and moving towards the full sustainability of extraction and production practices, sourcing and supply chains, and use and disposal.

    Target 18. Redirect, repurpose, reform or eliminate incentives harmful for biodiversity, in a just and equitable way, reducing them by at least US$ 500 billion per year, including all of the most harmful subsidies, and ensure that incentives, including public and private economic and regulatory incentives, are either positive or neutral for biodiversity.

So sollen die finanziellen Ressourcen zu mindestens jährlich 200 Milliarden US-Dollar ausgebaut werden:

  • Target 19. Increase financial resources from all sources to at least US$ 200 billion per year, including new, additional and effective financial resources, increasing by at least US$ 10 billion per year international financial flows to developing countries, leveraging private finance, and increasing domestic resource mobilization, taking into account national biodiversity finance planning, and strengthen capacity-building and technology transfer and scientific cooperation, to meet the needs for implementation, commensurate with the ambition of the goals and targets of the framework.

Im Abschnitt „Goal D“ sind die Ziele benannt:

  • The gap between available financial and other means of implementation, and those necessary to achieve the 2050 Vision, is closed.

    Milestone D.1 Adequate financial resources to implement the framework are available and deployed, progressively closing the financing gap up to at least US $700 billion per year by 2030.

    Milestone D.2 Adequate other means, including capacity-building and development, technical and scientific cooperation and technology transfer to implement the framework to 2030 are available and deployed.

    Milestone D.3 Adequate financial and other resources for the period 2030 to 2040 are planned or committed by 2030.

Auch werden Finanzierungsmechanismen im Abschnitt zur Umsetzung des Frameworks explizit genannt:

  • 13. Implementation of the framework and achievement of its goals and targets will be supported through support mechanisms under the Convention on Biological Diversity, including the financial mechanism, and strategies for resource mobilization, capacity-building and development, technical and scientific cooperation and technology transfer, knowledge management as well as through relevant mecahnisms under other conventions and international processes.

Ausdrücklich werden die Vertragsparteien zur finanziellen Unterstützung aufgefordert:

  • „6. Urges Parties, in particular developed country Parties, and invites other Governments and international financial institutions, regional development banks, and other multilateral financial institutions to provide adequate, predictable and timely financial support to developing country Parties, in particular the least developed countries, small island developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition, to enable the full implementation of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework, and reiterates the view that the extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments under this Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under this Convention in connection with financial resources and transfer of technology;

    7. Requests the Global Environment Facility to provide adequate, timely and predictable financial support to eligible countries with a view to enabling the implementation of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework”

Die COP-15 stellt hier ein vorläufiges Konferenz-Programm zur Verfügung. Auf Punkt III der Agenda steht die Regelung des Budgets für die Treuhandfonds. Daneben werden die Mechanismen zur Umsetzung der Konvention und des Biodiversität-Strategieplans 2011-2020 diskutiert und darüber hinaus weitere Belange wie Landwirtschaft, Marine und Klimawandel in Bezug auf Biodiversität untersucht. Hierbei wird auch das Thema Finanzen von Bedeutung sein.

Vom 31. Oktober bis zum 12. November findet mit der COP26 ein weiteres wichtiges Event statt. Einen Ausblick und weitere Informationen zur COP26 sind hier zu finden.

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